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Self-Quiz on Therapies

Revised 4/4/2004. Welcome to the self-quiz on Therapies. Read the question and click on an answer. You will jump to a correction or (if the answer is correct) a confirmation. No total score is provided for this quiz because it is meant to be browsed; you can scan the responses to wrong answers as well as right answers. If you run into problems or have a question, read the introductory paragraphs on the self-quiz index page.

  1. Psychodynamic therapies typically emphasize...
  2. In the technique called free association, clients...
  3. What did Freud believe about dream symbols?
  4. Critics of Freudian psychoanalysis maintain that this form of therapy...
  5. Rogers said that despite the variety of problems seen by a counseling psychologist...
  6. To Ellis, an "irrational" idea is typically...
  7. Classic desensitization as invented by Wolpe involves a "fear hierarchy" which is really...
  8. Why does "self-monitoring" often change behavior?
  9. What is eclecticism?
  10. A recent trend in psychotherapy research is for researchers to concentrate more on...

End of multiple choice questions for Chapter 14

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ANSWERS AND DISCUSSION SECTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

a warm, supportive relationship between therapist and client

No, that would be emphasized more by a typical nondirective or Rogerian counselor, although all therapists would probably agree that a good therapist/client relationship is desirable.

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You picked...

inner speech

No; therapies that emphasize modification of inner speech include Ellis's RET therapy or Beck's therapy for depression, or other cognitive behavior therapies, but not typically the psychodynamic therapies.

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You picked...

correcting irrational thoughts

No that would be more typical of Ellis's or Beck's therapies.

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You picked...

analyzing problems as CERs

No, it is behaviorists such as Eysenck who usually analyze problems in terms of conditioning, such as conditional emotional responses (CERs).

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You picked...

events from the individual's past

Yes...this is a hallmark of "depth" or psychodynamic therapies.

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You picked...

experience abreaction

No, abreaction is a powerful emotional reaction (basically the same as "catharsis") and this would not typically be triggered by free association.

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You picked...

mingle in a group

No, free association does not mean that people freely associate...at least, not in this context.

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You picked...

respond quickly with the first thing that comes to mind

Yes; that is the essence of the free association technique. The therapist calls out words and the client responds quickly and freely without censorship.

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You picked...

relate dream objects to emotional themes

No, that is not free association.

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You picked...

are encouraged to "become a person"

No, that is a phrase from Rogers, who did not use free association as a technique.

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You picked...

they were "a language plain as day"

No, actually Freud felt that meanings were often obscure and hidden, in dreams.

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You picked...

they were "mysteriously meaningful" only to the dreamer

No, it was Jung who said "the dreamer must interpret the dream" (and did not practice what he preached in this regard, anyway). Freud, like Jung, usually decided he knew what the dreamer's dream really meant.

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You picked...

they reflected deep, ancestral themes from the collective unconscious

No, that would be Jung. The "collective unconscious" is one of Jung's most distinctive concepts.

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You picked...

they reflected superiority or inferiority themes

No, that would be Adler. Adler was the one who emphasized feelings of inferiority and strivings for superiority.

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You picked...

they generally represented something related to sex

Yes; as he made clear in his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, Freud saw sexual symbolism everywhere, even in common objects such as pens and purses.

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You picked...

does not put enough emphasis on sex

No, psychoanalysis puts a lot of emphasis on sex.

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You picked...

can be harmful by tolerating or encouraging transference

Yes; transference is a tendency by the client to treat a therapist like an "important other" such as a husband or wife. Freud thought this could be useful in therapy and did not discourage it. Others regard transference as a dangerous complication of therapy which can create new problems for the client.

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You picked...

is good mostly for treating phobias

No, desensitization (not psychoanalysis) is the treatment of choice, for phobias.

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You picked...

is too quick to be effective

No, psychoanalysis tends to be very time-consuming. It can take years.

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You picked...

is too scientific and impersonal

No, scientifically inclined psychologists tend to be skeptical of Freud's theory, and psychoanalysis is not usually impersonal; the therapist establishes a close relationship to the client.

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You picked...

nobody is ever "cured"

No, Rogers never said that. Rogers believed in the possibility of healthy change for every client.

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You picked...

the whole concept of "problems" was wrong

No, Rogers would accept the client's perspective, even if it included the perception that life was full of problems.

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You picked...

there was, at root, only one problem: "Who am I, really?"

Yes; in a famous statement, Rogers said all the different problems seen by a counseling psychologist boil down to this one problem: figuring out the "true self" and what is really best to do with one's life.

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You picked...

it all boils down to negative self-talk

No, Ellis and Beck and other cognitive behavior therapists emphasize self-talk, not Rogers.

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You picked...

there were more solutions than problems

No, Rogers never said this, and Rogers promoted mostly a single solution: increased self-knowledge and healthy growth directed by the client rather than the therapist.

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You picked...

an "emotional truth"

No, "a cause of emotional upset" would be closer to what Ellis says.

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You picked...

repressed

No, Ellis did not put much stock in the idea of recovering repressed memories.

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You picked...

indisputable

No, to the contrary, Ellis's whole therapy involved "disputing" irrational ideas.

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unrealistic or untrue

Yes...this was what Ellis called "irrational."

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You picked...

a "window to the unconscious"

No, Ellis did not go looking for unconscious thoughts or motives. That is more typical of "depth" or "analytic" therapies.

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You picked...

a diagram showing control relationships between various emotions

No, it is not a diagram...

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a collection of typical phobic stimuli such as spiders and snakes

No, the stimuli were of the particular type feared by the client, not just "typical phobic stimuli."

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a relaxation procedure

No, relaxation is a part of the classic desensitization procedure but not the "fear hierarchy" part.

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an "in vivo" form of the therapy

No, in vivo (real life) forms of desensitization therapy are quite effective, but this was not part of Wolpe's classic procedure.

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a list of increasingly fearsome experiences

Yes. The phrase "fear hierarchy" was put in quotes because the list is not really hierarchical in the usual sense (forming a pyramid-shaped diagram of relationships). The fear hierarchy is simply a list of feared items in order, from least fearsome to most fearsome.

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the client knows he or she must "check in" with the therapist at regular intervals

No, self-monitoring is done by the client, not the therapist.

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the video camera does not lie

No, self-monitoring need not involve a video camera.

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individuals must pay attention to, and record, each occurrence of a behavior

Yes...when an individual must record each instance of lighting a cigarette, or each calorie of food consumed, this tends to increase awareness of the behavior, and often that modifies the frequency of behavior all by itself.

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people have to keep waking up during the night

No, self-monitoring does not require interrupting sleep; it typically involves behaviors which occur when people are awake.

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the client cannot leave a certain circumscribed area

No, self-monitoring does not require confining anybody.

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vagueness

No, some people feel the label sounds vague or uncommitted, but this is not what "eclectic" means.

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adherence to a specific "school" of therapy

No, just the opposite...eclecticism means lack of adherence to a particular school of therapy.

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a form of "shock therapy"

No, the work is "eclectic," not "electric."

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using techniques from many different sources

Yes; a person who is eclectic draws from many different sources, or uses many different techniques.

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criticism of a theory or therapy

No, electicism has nothing to do with criticism.

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effects of relaxation

No, relaxation is an important part of therapies like desensitization, but it is not a special focus of recent research.

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psychoanalysis

No, psychoanalysis is an old technique and not a particular focus of recent research.

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events of later childhood

No, psychotherapy researchers as a group are not focusing on late childhood.

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smaller components of therapy instead of overall improvement

Yes; researchers have not discovered much from "global outcome" studies, because all therapist have similar success rates as measured by "overall improvement." Now researchers are more likely to examine some part of the process, to try to figure out how a particular therapy works.

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You picked...

reinforcement and punishment effects

No, that has been studied for many years so it would not be a recent trend.

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