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Self-Quiz on Memory

Revised 4/4/2004. Welcome to the self-quiz on Memory. Read the question and click on an answer. You will jump to a correction or (if the answer is correct) a confirmation. No total score is provided for this quiz because it is meant to be browsed; you can scan the responses to wrong answers as well as right answers. If you run into problems or have a question, read the introductory paragraphs on the self-quiz index page.

  1. What is a "trial" in memory research?
  2. When would serial learning definitely be needed?
  3. A drawback of the yes/no method of recognition testing is that...
  4. Sperling, in his pioneering studies of iconic memory...
  5. Rehearsal resembles...
  6. What is a "chunk," in short term memory?
  7. Procedural memory, unlike declarative memory....
  8. Why are mnemonic devices effective?
  9. The notion of task-appropriate processing implies that if you are preparing for a quiz you should...
  10. Which of the following is NOT something extraordinary memorists generally have in common?

End of multiple choice questions on Memory

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ANSWERS AND DISCUSSION SECTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

a controlled study of forgetting

No, the trial is not the entire study, it is part of it.

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You picked...

a memory test

No, tests may seem like a "trial" in school, sometimes, but in memory research a "trial" is not the testing part.

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a test of a theory

No, an experiment as a whole may be a test of a theory, but a trial is just one part of a memory experiment.

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a presentation of stimulus materials to a subject

Yes. A trial, in memory research, is one "try" at memorizing, which is usually equated wtih "one presentation of the stimulus materials." So, for example, if you exposed to ten repetitions of a paragraph, this would be called ten "trials."

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a difficult subject

Like psychology? No, "trial" is used in a different sense, in memory research.

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You picked...

memorizing a grocery list

No, that could be done in any order. Serial learning requires preservation of serial (sequential) order.

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You picked...

memorizing the meanings of traffic symbols for a driver's test

No, that sounds more like paired associates learning, because the list of different symbols could be in any order, but you must associate each symbol with a meaning.

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memorizing the turns to get through a crowded city

Yes. Typically a route through a complex environment requires a series of decisions which are made in the same sequence each time. That is serial (sequential) learning.

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You picked...

memorizing names of people you met only once

No, unless you had to memorize the names in a fixed order, this would not be serial learning. Is is more like paired associates learning (associating each stimulus, face, with one response, a name).

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You picked...

learning to recognize faces

No, facial recognition does not require memorizing things in a fixed sequence, whch is the defining attribute of serial learning.

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You picked...

it makes recognition into a matter of probabilities

Just the opposite...the yes/no method requires an all or none decision. It does not allow a subject say (for example) "I am 80% sure I recognize that object" which would be recognizing the probabilistic nature of the decision.

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You picked...

it forces people to make a choice

No, this is not the problem. After all, the forced-choice method...a preferred alternative to the yes/no method...also forces people to make a choice.

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You picked...

different people require different levels of confidence before saying "yes"

Exactly. Some people say "Yes, I recognize that" quite easily, others require themselves to be sure, before committing themselves to a "Yes" answer. So it is hard to compare individuals. This problem does not occur with the forced choice method, in which the subject knows that one of the alternatives is correct, and everybody must pick one alternative.

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it eliminates the effects of experience

No, even if required to give a yes or no judgment, one is stlil affected by prior learning.

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it prohibits mnemonic techniques

No, there is nothing about the yes/no method which prohibits the use of mnemonic (memory) techniques.

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You picked...

had subjects relearn a language they heard as infants

No, Sperling's research involved the sense of sight...

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You picked...

tested subject's memory for pictures

No, it was not conscious picture memory that Sperling studied....

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You picked...

asked subjects to read briefly flashed letters

Yes. Sperling flashed an array of letters onto a screen, using a tachistoscope (an instrument built for that purpose). Subjects had to read letters off the screen as quickly as the could, before the image faded.

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You picked...

studied memory for medieval Russian religious paintings

No, that's s different type of "icon."

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You picked...

studied recognition errors

No, Sperling studied the visual sensory store.

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You picked...

echoic memory

No, rehearsal involves an interpreted sound (such as a sentence) while echoic memory is an automatic "tape delay" which occurs before a sound is consciously interpreted.

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acoustic interference

No, acoustic interference causes errors in rehearsal, so the two do not "resemble" each other.

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You picked...

autobiographical stories

Not unless one is rehearsing autobiographical stories. Rehearsal is not limited to that.

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You picked...

encoding

No, many types of stimuli that are "encoded" in various ways are not rehearsed. The two are not equivalent.

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"re-hearing" something

Yes. Rehearsal is very much like hearing a voice in your head. Often rehearsal is described as "saying something to oneself."

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You picked...

a partial memory, not complete

No, a chunk is any organized whole, either a whole memory or a whole component of a memory, but not a "partial memory." Chunks are often organized together and could be "part of a memory" in that sense, but there is a better answer here.

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You picked...

a single organized thing or item

Yes. A "chunk" as George Miller used the term is any organized whole in memory. It could be a letter, a word, even a short sentence, treated as a single "item" in primary memory storage.

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You picked...

a "magic number" which aids retrieval

No....you might be thinking of the title of George Miller's paper in which he discussed the "chunk" concept, "The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two." Miller was making the point that primary memory can juggle about five to nine different chunks (organized units) of memory at once.

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You picked...

a hierarchy

No, hierarchical organization is often used in to help memory retrieva, and you could argue that a chunk represents a node in a hierarchically ordered system, but this is a bit over the edge..

 

there is another, more accepted definition of "chunk."

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You picked...

a binary "bit" of information

No, the whole point of Miller's classic article about "chunking" was that chunks did not reflect the amount of binary information in a stimulus. A chunk could be a letter, a word, or a set of words...anything treated as one "thing" in memory.

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records facts

No, just the opposite. Declarative memory is for "facts."

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preserves images

No, procedural memory is not specifically about images of any type.

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includes sounds and smells

No, generally these things are not part of a procedure or skill, although conceivably making sounds could be.

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involves the hippocampus

No, just the opposite. Declarative memory involves the hippocampus, while procedural memory involves the cerebellum more.

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involves sequences or routines

Yes. Most procedures involve "programs" which must be executed in a certain order and could be described as "routines."

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to remember material, you must first pay attention to it

This may be true but mnemonic devices involve more than just paying attention to something.

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memory depends on the strength of the memory trace and how often it is rehearsed

No, mnemonic devices involve a whole different approach.

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memory depends on retrieval strategies

Yes. What all mnemonic devices have in common is that they provide a system or strategy for retrieving information later. This is why they help memory performance.

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they all use imagery

No, they don't all use imagery; for example, the saying "i before e except after c..." is a mnemonic device, although it is based on language, not imagery.

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they stir up emotions

No, one can remain quite calm while using mnemonics, and they still work.

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quiz yourself

Yes. The basic idea of task-appropriate processing is that memory benefits from a good match between the type of processing and the type of testing. If you are going to be quizzed, you benefit by quizzing yourself (or having somebody else quiz you. That is the reason this self-quiz section exists).

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generate images

No, that may help memory, but "task appropriate processing" does not necessarliy involve imagery.

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devise mnemonic strategies

No, task-appropriate process would not necessarily imply using mnemonic strategies, unless a mnemonic strategy was particularly well suited to the requirements of a particular test.

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prepare a crib sheet

A "crib sheet" or condensed summary of important facts may help a student (even if it cannot be used during a test) because it requires the student to organize important knowledge. However, there is another answer here which better exemplifies the idea behind "task appropriate processing."

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sleep

No, this may be beneficial, but it is not the best example of "task appropriate processing."

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You picked...

the use of "great effort" to memorize important material

Right. Few of them exerted great effort. They would concentrate, or calmly inspect something, but they did not strain or grow excited or in other obvious ways exert themselves.

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You picked...

the use of imagery

No, all the "great memorists" in the literature seem to use imagery in some way.

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a trancelike state of absorption

No, all great memorists seem to get absorbed in what they are memorizing.

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attention to the inner structure of events

No, all great memorists seem to pay close attention to the "inner structure" or relationship between components in the material they are memorizing.

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taking an interest in the subject matter

No, all the great memorists report is is easier to memorize something if it interests you.

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